Tuesday, January 29, 2019
12:30 p.m. – 1:45 p.m. ET 

Issues arising from employees and information moving from one employer to another continue to proliferate and provide fertile ground for legislative action and judicial decisions. Many businesses increasingly feel that their trade secrets or client relationships are under attack by competitors—and even, potentially, by their own employees. Individual workers changing jobs may try to leverage their former employer’s proprietary information or relationships to improve their new employment prospects, or may simply be seeking to pursue their livelihood.

How can you put yourself in the best position to succeed in a constantly developing legal landscape?

Whether you are an employer drafting agreements and policies or in litigation seeking to enforce or avoid them, you will want to know about recent developments and what to expect in this area.

Join Epstein Becker Green attorneys David J. Clark, William Cook, and Aime Dempsey for a webinar providing insights into recent developments and expected trends in the evolving legal landscape of trade secret and non-competition law.

During this webinar, the panel will discuss:

  • Legal trends in the enforceability of non-competes
  • Steps employers can take to comply with new laws
  • New and pending state and federal legislation, including the Massachusetts Noncompetition Agreement Act
  • Recent judicial decisions regarding restrictive covenants, including an important California case concerning provisions barring solicitation of employees
  • New cases and statutes regarding protection of trade secrets
  • Continuing governmental scrutiny of “no poach” agreements

Register today for this complimentary webinar!

The Illinois Appellate Court recently declined to adopt a bright line rule regarding the enforceability of five year non-competes or three year non-solicits, and instead directed courts to interpret the reasonableness of any such restrictive covenants on a case-by-case basis.

In Pam’s Acad. of Dance/Forte Arts Ctr. v. Marik, 2018 IL App (3d) 170803, the plaintiff dance company sued a former employee for breaching a non-disclosure agreement and restrictive covenant by allegedly opening a dance studio within 25 miles of plaintiff and soliciting students and teachers by means of an “improperly obtained” customer list. Following a split resolution on a motion to dismiss, the trial court certified two questions for appellate review, including the one pertinent to readers of this blog: whether a post-employment non-compete lasting five years or a post-employment customer/co-worker non-solicit lasting three years is per se unenforceable as a matter of Illinois law?

Notwithstanding the facial over-length of these restrictions, the Illinois Appellate Court declined to find that three or five year restrictive covenants were de facto unenforceable. Instead, the Court reiterated the need for the trial court to consider the totality of the circumstances, explaining that “the reasonableness of the restrictive covenant at issue here requires the resolution of a number of facts” – facts to be resolved at the trial court level.

While the court’s ruling suggests that temporal restrictions of three or five years may, in appropriate circumstances, be permissible, practical experience and other Illinois cases indicate the need for employers to narrowly tailor restrictive covenants, including temporal restrictions. To avoid challenges to the overbreadth of a restrictive covenant, employers should adhere to the standards set forth in the Illinois Supreme Court’s seminal decision, Reliable Fire Equipment Co. v. Arrendo, in which the Court held that a restrictive covenant is only enforceable if it: (1) is no greater than required for the protection of a legitimate business interest of the employer-promisee; (2) does not impose undue hardship on the employee-promisor; and (3) is not injurious to the public.

Thomson Reuters Practical Law has released a new edition of “Preparing for Non-Compete Litigation,” a Practice Note co-authored by our colleague Peter A. Steinmeyer of Epstein Becker Green.

Following is an excerpt:

Non-compete litigation is typically fast-paced and expensive. An employer must act quickly when it suspects that an employee or former employee is violating a non-compete agreement (also referred to as a non-competition agreement or non-compete). It is critical to confirm that there is sufficient factual and legal support before initiating legal action. Filing a complaint for monetary damages or a request for an injunction can backfire if an employer is not prepared with sufficient evidence to support its request. This Note discusses the steps an employer can take to best position itself for successful enforcement of a non-compete and the strategic considerations involved with initiating non-compete litigation. In particular, it discusses:

  • Best practices for investigating a suspected violation and gathering relevant evidence.
  • Key steps for evaluating the likelihood a court will enforce a non-compete.
  • Factors to consider before initiating legal action.
  • The options for enforcing a non-compete through legal action and the key decisions relevant to each option.

Click here to download the full Note in PDF format.

In its 2008 landmark decision Edwards v. Arthur Andersen LLP (2008) 44 Cal. 4th 937, the California Supreme Court set forth a broad prohibition against non-compete provisions, but it left open whether or to what extent employee non-solicit provisions were enforceable. Since Edwards, no California appellate court has addressed that issue in a published opinion – until recently. On November 1, the California Court of Appeal in AMN Healthcare, Inc. v. Aya Healthcare Services, Inc., ruled that a broadly worded contractual clause that prohibited solicitation of employees for one year after employment was void under California Business and Professions Code section 16600, which provides “Except as provided in this chapter every contract by which anyone is restrained from engaging in a lawful profession, trade or business of any kind is to that extent void.” The decision calls into question the continuing viability of employee non-solicitation provisions in the employment context, and employers who regularly include such provisions in their agreements should reassess their use and enforcement of those provisions.

AMN and Aya are competing healthcare staffing companies that provide travel nurses, to medical care facilities throughout the country. The individual defendants were former travel nurse recruiters of AMN who left AMN and joined Aya, where they also worked as travel nurse recruiters.

The individual defendants each signed a confidentiality and nondisclosure agreement (CNDA) with AMN, which included a provision preventing them from soliciting any employee of AMN to leave AMN for a one-year period. Section 3.2 of the CDNA provided:

Employee covenants and agrees that during Employee’s employment with the Company and for a period of [one year or] eighteen months after the termination of the employment relationship with the Company, Employee shall not directly or indirectly solicit or induce, or cause others to solicit or induce, any employee of the Company or any Company Affiliate to leave the service of the Company or such Company Affiliate.

Because AMN’s travel nurses were employees of AMN, section 3.2 of the CNDA applied to prevent a former AMN employee from recruiting a travel nurse on a temporary assignment for AMN.

After the individual defendants resigned, AMN sued them, asserting various causes of action, including breach of the non-solicitation provision in the CNDA. Defendants filed a cross-complaint, requesting the court declare the non-solicitation provision in the CNDA void and enjoining AMN from enforcing the provision against other former AMN employees.

The defendants moved for summary judgment of AMN’s complaint and of their own cross-complaint. Defendants claimed that the non-solicitation provision in the CNDA was an improper restraint on individual defendants’ ability to engage in their profession – soliciting and recruiting travel nurses – in violation of Business and Professions Code section 16600. The trial court agreed, and granted defendants summary judgment on AMN’s complaint and granted summary adjudication of defendants’ declaratory relief cause of action. Then the court enjoined AMN from enforcing the employee non-solicitation provision in the CNDA as to any former California employee and awarded defendants attorney’s fees.

The Fourth District Court of Appeal affirmed the trial court’s grant of summary judgment. In doing so, the court concluded that the non-solicitation provision in the CNDA was void under section 16600. “Indeed, the broadly worded provision prevents individual defendants, for a period of at least one year after termination of employment with AMN, from either ‘directly or indirectly’ soliciting or recruiting, or causing others to solicit or induce, any employee of AMN. This provision clearly restrained individual defendants from practicing with Aya their chosen profession—recruiting travel nurses on 13-week assignments with AMN.” The court further found that a one-year, post-termination restriction preventing a former AMN recruiter from contacting and recruiting a travel nurse on a 13-week assignment with AMN “at a minimum equates to a period of four such assignments for a given nurse. The undisputed evidence thus shows section 3.2 of the CNDA restricted individual defendants’ ability to engage in their ‘profession, trade, or business.'”

In granting summary adjudication, the court rejected AMN’s reliance on Loral Corp. v. Moyes (1985) 174 Cal. App. 3d 268 for the argument that the CNDA was valid because it only prevented non-solicitation of employees (here, travel nurses). Moyes involved the validity of a contractual clause restricting a former executive officer from “raiding” the plaintiffs’ employees. In determining the provision was more like a permissible non-solicitation or nondisclosure agreement and not an invalid non-competition agreement, the court observed that the agreement “restrained [defendant] from disrupting, damaging, impairing or interfering with his former employer by raiding [the plaintiffs’] employees …. This does not appear to be any more of a significant restraint on his engaging in his profession, trade or business than a restraint on solicitation of customers or on disclosure of confidential information.”

 The court concluded that Moyes‘s use of a reasonableness standard in analyzing the non-solicitation clause conflicted with Edwards – decided over twenty years later – where the California Supreme Court interpreted Section 16600 to be a “settled public policy in favor of open competition,” and rejected the common law “rule of reasonableness.” Because the Edwards court found section 16600 “unambiguous,” and noted that “if the Legislature intended the statute to apply only to restraints that were unreasonable or overbroad, it could have included language to that effect,” the court expressed “doubt [as to] the continuing viability of Moyes post-Edwards.”

The court also affirmed the injunction, which prevented AMN and its employees and agents “from using, enforcing, or attempting to enforce any contract or employment agreement in the State of California which purports to restrain its former employees from directly or indirectly soliciting or inducing, or causing others to solicit or induce, any employee of AMN to leave the service of AMN.” In connection with the injunction, the court approved an award of attorney’s fees to defendants under Code of Civil Procedure section 1021.5, which permits fees to be awarded “in any action which has resulted in the enforcement of an important right affecting the public interest if: (a) a significant benefit … has been conferred on the general public or a large class of persons, (b) the necessity and financial burden of private enforcement … are such as to make the award appropriate, and (c) such fees should not in the interest of justice be paid out of the recovery, if any.”

In affirming the award of attorney’s fees, the court concluded that “Defendants clearly were successful parties within the meaning of the statute … the instant action involved an important issue affecting the public interest, namely the enforceability of section 3.2 [of the CNDA, which], if enforced, prevented former AMN employees from recruiting travel nurses and similar professionals who were on temporary assignment with AMN, even if those same travel nurses had applied to, were known by, and/or had previously been placed by, a competitor of AMN, as the instant case aptly shows.” The court further concluded that “instant action conferred a significant benefit on the public … [and] a large class of persons … namely, all current and former AMN California employees who had signed a CNDA containing a non-solicitation of employee provision similar to section 3.2 of the CNDA.”

The AMN Healthcare decision is significant for several reasons. The court’s expressed doubt as to the viability of Loral Corp. v. Moyes should give pause to both employers who regularly include such provisions in employment agreements and practitioners who advise employers as to the inclusion or enforceability of such provisions. While it could be argued the appellate court’s ruling should be limited to its facts because an employee non-solicitation clause easily restrains a recruiter from engaging in their “profession, trade, or business,” the AMN Healthcare court’s reasoning could be extended to other situations. Further, the court’s award of attorney’s fees under Code of Civil Procedure section 1021.5 provides a cautionary tale for employers attempting to enforce contractual provisions that run afoul of Business & Professions Code section 16600. Well-informed defendants will bring a cross-complaint seeking injunctive relief, and, if they prevail, could be entitled their attorney’s fees in doing so.

States across the country have been using enforcement actions, legislation, and interpretive guidance to limit employers’ ability to enforce restrictive covenants against low wage workers. The recent decision in Butler v. Jimmy John’s Franchise, LLC et. al., 18-cv-0133 (S.D. Ill. 2018) suggests this trend may extend to federal antitrust law.

The Butler case relates to the legality of certain restrictive covenants in Jimmy John’s franchise agreements.[1] The Complaint alleges that Jimmy John’s required franchisees to agree not to hire any job applicants who worked for a different Jimmy John’s franchise in the previous year. Franchisees also agreed not to solicit one another’s employees. The franchise agreements also named all other Jimmy John’s franchisees as third party beneficiaries of the agreement. This meant that if Franchise B hired a Franchise A employee, Franchise A could sue to enforce the agreement between Franchise B and Jimmy John’s Franchise LLC (the franchisor).

In determining claims of antitrust violations, the distinction between “horizontal” and “vertical” agreements is highly significant. Challenges to vertical agreements are analyzed under the “rule of reason” under which plaintiffs must prove market power and that the challenged practices actually harm competition. This generally requires sophisticated economic analysis. Horizontal agreements not to compete, in contrast, are generally deemed “per se” unreasonable and do not require any proof regarding market context.

In Butler, the Court characterized the franchise agreements as horizontal agreements. Such a characterization permitted the plaintiffs to state a claim without alleging that a particular franchisor has sufficient market power to effect the market for employees in an entire geographic region. In other words, the plaintiffs did not have to prove that Jimmy John’s on its own had enough market power to depress the wages of delivery drivers in a particular city.

To keep things in perspective, Butler is an isolated district court decision which may remain an outlier. However, it serves as another example of how subjecting low wage workers to restrictive covenants can impose heightened litigation risk. Butler provides another reason (on top of the joint FTC/DOJ Antitrust Guidance for Human Resources Professionals and DOJ enforcement actions following through on that guidance) for employers to ensure their restrictive covenants are not only enforceable but compliant with antitrust law.

______________________

[1] Jimmy John’s has since agreed to remove the challenged provisions from their franchise agreements.

Join Epstein Becker Green attorneys, Brian G. Cesaratto and Brian E. Spang, for a discussion of how employers can best protect their critical technologies and trade secrets from employee and other insider threats. Topics to be discussed include:

  • Determining your biggest threat by using available data
  • What keeps you up at night?
  • Foreseeing the escalation in risk, from insider and cyber threats to critical technologies
  • New protections and remedies under the Trade Secret Protection Act of 2014
  • Where are your trade secrets located, and what existing protections are in place?
  • What types of administrative and technical controls should your firm consider implementing for the key material on your network to protect against an insider threat?
  • What legal requirements may apply under applicable data protection laws?
  • How do you best protect trade secrets and other critical technologies as information increasingly moves into the cloud?
  • Using workforce management and personnel techniques to gain protection
  • The importance of an incident response plan
  • Developing and implementing an effective litigation response strategy to employee theft

Wednesday, October 3, 2018.
12:30 p.m. – 2:00 p.m. ET
Register for this complimentary webinar today!

On September 19, 2018, the New York Attorney General (“NYAG”) released a Frequently Asked Questions document (“FAQ”) regarding non-compete agreements in New York. The FAQ posits and answers the following basic questions about non-competes:

  • What is a non-compete agreement?
  • Are non-competes legal?
  • Do I have to sign a non-compete?
  • How could a non-compete affect me?
  • How do employers enforce non-competes?

In addition, the FAQ advises employees on specific steps to take before signing a non-compete, as well as actions employees can take if they signed a non-compete and are contemplating leaving their job. The FAQ concludes by emphasizing the NYAG’s efforts to end overly broad non-competes for rank-and-file employees who do not have access to trade secrets or confidential information, noting several recent settlements in this space and legislation introduced by the NYAG that would prohibit non-competes for workers earning below $75,000 per year (which is still pending).

The publication of the FAQ is not only a useful resource to employers and employees alike, but also another notable development in the close scrutiny that state attorneys general, nationwide, are applying to non-compete agreements.

On April 13, 2015 we blogged about the decision of the Ninth Circuit in Golden v. California Emergency Physicians Medical Group, 782 F.3d 1083 (9th Cir. 2015). There, the Ninth Circuit considered whether, under California law, an employee could be ordered to sign a settlement agreement that included language that restricted him, inter alia, from future employment with his former employer.

Dr. Golden is an emergency-room doctor who sued California Emergency Physicians Medical Group (“CEP”), among others, regarding his loss of staff membership at a medical facility.  His lawsuit was based on various state and federal causes of action, including racial discrimination.  The parties orally agreed in open court to settle the case and the settlement terms included “a substantial monetary amount,”  dismissal of the action, a release of CEP and a waiver of any and all rights to employment with CEP or at any facility that CEP may own or with which it may contract in the future (the “no-employment provision”).  Dr. Golden refused to sign the written agreement and attempted to have it set aside.  His attorney moved the court to withdraw as counsel, moved the court to intervene and further moved the court to enforce the settlement agreement so he could collect his contingency fee. In further proceedings, a magistrate judge recommended that Dr. Golden be ordered to sign an amended agreement, and that recommendation was adopted by the district court judge who concluded the settlement agreement was not within the ambit of Business and Professions Code § 16600, which makes unlawful in California (with limited exceptions) any contract to the extent it restrains someone from engaging in a lawful trade, business or profession.  Dr. Golden refused to sign the agreement and filed a notice of appeal.

On appeal, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the district court’s enforcement of the settlement agreement and remanded the case to the district court to determine whether a no employment provision in the agreement is a “restraint of substantial character” to the Plaintiff’s medical practice.

On remand, the district court again ordered Dr. Golden to sign the settlement agreement, concluding that the no-employment provision was not a restraint of substantial character. Dr. Golden again appealed.

In its July 24, 2018 decision, the Ninth Circuit surveyed California law and noted first that a contractual provision imposes a restraint of substantial character if it significantly or materially impedes a person’s lawful profession, trade, or business.  The Ninth Circuit noted that a provision need not completely prohibit the business or professional activity at issue, nor need it be sufficient to dissuade a reasonable person from engaging in that activity.  Rather, the “restraining effect must be significant enough that its enforcement would implicate the policies of open competition and employee mobility that animate Section 16600.”  The Court noted that it “will be the rare contractual restraint whose effect is so insubstantial that it escapes scrutiny under Section 16600.”

Looking to the provision in the settlement agreement at issue, the Ninth Circuit noted that it impeded Dr. Golden’s ability to practice medicine in three ways.

First, the settlement agreement prohibited Dr. Golden from working or being reinstated at any facility owned or managed by CEP.

Second, the settlement agreement prohibited Dr. Golden from working at any CEP-contracted facility.

Third, the settlement agreement provided that if CEP contracts to provide services to, or acquires rights in a facility where Dr. Golden is currently working as an emergency room physician or hospitalist, CEP has the right to terminate his employment with no liability.

The Ninth Circuit held that the first provision, which barred Dr. Golden from future employment at facilities owned or managed by CEP did not impose a substantial restraint on his medical practice. The Ninth Circuit further held, however that the second and third provisions did substantially restrain Dr. Golden’s practice of medicine and were therefore barred by Section 16600.  These two provisions limited employment with third parties based merely on whether CEP contracted with them. As a result, if Dr. Golden was employed by a hospital that later contracted with CEP to provide, for example, anesthesiology services, Dr. Golden would be ineligible for employment with the hospital.

Given the size of CEP’s business in California—it staffs 160 facilities in the state and handles between 25% and 30% of the state’s emergency room admissions, these provisions were a substantial restraint on Dr. Golden’s trade.

The Ninth Circuit’s ruling may leave open whether a provision in a settlement agreement that permits an employer to terminate the employment of an employee where it acquires the employee’s new employer will pass muster under Section 16600.  The provisions at issue in Golden were extremely broad: Plaintiff was prohibited from employment with entities with which CEP contracts to provide services to, or “acquires rights” in.  A different, more limited provision that prohibited employment at entities as to which the employer acquires outright may be held not to impose a substantial restraint on trade.  Further, the Ninth Circuit relied in part on CEP’s broad reach in the state of California.  This leaves open that smaller employers may be able to impose restrictions that larger employers with more market share may not.

Effective as of October 1, 2018, Massachusetts will become the 49th state to adopt a version of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (leaving New York as the only holdout). Massachusetts did so as part of a large budget bill recently signed into law, which also resulted in the adoption of the Massachusetts Noncompetition Agreement Act. (The text of the Massachusetts version of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act is set out on pages 47-52 of the bill, H. 4868, while the effective date is set out on page 117. Here is a link to the entire budget bill.)

While there are differences from existing Massachusetts law regarding trade secrets, the new law is similar in most respects to the federal Defend Trade Secrets Act (“DTSA”). Nevertheless, the remedy provisions of the two laws are not identical, and there will be situations where greater relief is available under one statute than the other. For example, ex parte seizure orders are only available under DTSA, and attorney’s fees and exemplary damages are only available under DTSA if certain required disclosures about whistleblower immunity were made in agreements containing confidentiality provisions. The new Massachusetts law allows attorneys’ fees in circumstances of willful and malicious misappropriation and/or where claims or defenses are pursued in bad faith.

Additionally, employers should be aware that the Massachusetts statute does not apply to “misappropriation occurring prior to” October 1, 2018 or to “continuing misappropriation that began prior to” that date but continued after it.

We just published an article with Thomson Reuters Practical Law discussing garden leave provisions in employment agreements as an alternative or a companion to traditional employee non-compete agreements. With Thomson Reuters Practical Law’s permission, we have attached it here.